Theory and Application of Web Handling

WH Hashimoto










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Publishing company: Converting Technical Institute

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The world around us is full of industrial products made of relatively thin materials, including paper, textiles, plastic films, thin-film glass, nonwoven fabric, and metal foils. Although this variety shows that these materials are essential to our daily lives, they are also critical in furthering the development of high-tech industries that will eventually form the core of the global economy. Some examples from the IT, energy, and medical fields include optical films for flat panel displays, solid polymer membranes used in fuel cells, and artificial biological membranes for medical applications. During the manufacturing process, however, we call these materials webs.
Web manufacturing technology relies on the converting technologies of coating, laminating, and printing, as well as on web handling technology (here we include unwinding, slitting, cutting, drying, and rewinding, etc.). Among these, coating and printing have established themselves as cutting-edge technologies, for which academics have shown great interest. In contrast, web handling technology has conventionally been refined through production plant experience; although the technology itself has reached a fairly advanced level, its academic understanding is poor.
At the strong behest of the industry, the author has spent the past 20 years working to theoretically understand the physical phenomena related to web handling, and predicting and preventing the problems that occur during manufacturing. Our research has been studied widely in Japan by industries that utilize web handling technology, and has been praised for the help that it has provided in eliminating defects and developing new products.
On the other hand, we have also received strong interest from around the world in publishing our results in English given the desire to understand the strength of Japan's web handling technology. Given that the theoretical research into web handling began outside of Japan, we are elated to be able to publish an English version of our work as it will allow us to repay our debt to those who came before. At the same time, nothing would make us happier than to see this work contribute to the opening of new horizons for readers around the world involved in web handling technology.


Chapter 1 Background to Web Handling
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Key Points of Web Handling Technology
1.3 History of Web Handling Research
1.4 Growth of Roll-to-Roll Printed Electronics

Chapter 2 Web Handling Fundamentals
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Mechanical Characteristics of the Web
2.3 Web Surface Roughness Characteristics
2.4 Friction Characteristics Between Solids
2.5 Web-roller Interface Problems
2.6 Web Bending Stress and Strain
2.7 Web Tracking Ability

Chapter 3 Web Deformation
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Relationship Between Web Material Structures and Elasticity
3.3 Liquid Structures and Viscosity
3.4 Viscoelastic Bodies and the Mechanical Model
3.5 Web Bending
3.6 Web Buckling
3.7 Web Creasing

Chapter 4 Tribology in Web Handling
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Web Transport and Tribology
4.3 Friction Force and Coefficient of Friction
4.4 Amontons-Coulomb Friction Law
4.5 Measuring Coefficient of Friction
4.6 Euler’s Belt Equation
4.7 Rigid Body Surface Roughness
4.8 Rigid Body Contact and Friction
4.9 Friction Mechanism
4.10 Coefficient of Friction Control
4.11 Air Entrainment Between the Web and Roller
4.12 Fluid Viscosity Law
4.13 Fluid Lubrication Principle
4.14 Reynolds Equation
4.15 Foil Bearing Theory
4.16 Stribeck Curve
4.17 Mixed Lubrication Model and Effective Coefficient of Friction
4.18 Macro-slip Generation Conditions
4.19 Macro-slip Prevention Methods
4.20 Safe Web Transport Diagram

Chapter 5 Web Slippage
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Criteria for the Occurrence of Web-Roller Slip
5.3 Theoretical Prediction Equation for Slip Initiation Velocity
5.4 Slip Observation Test
5.5 Pilot System Experimental Verification

Chapter 6 Web Wrinkles
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Wrinkle Causes
6.3 Wrinkle Generation Observation
6.4 Theoretical Prediction model Formularization
6.4.1 Theoretical Prediction Model for Margin Line (1)
6.4.2 Margin Line (2) Theoretical Prediction Model
6.5 Experimental Verification
6.6 Preventing Wrinkles

Chapter 7 Winding Mechanics
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Rewinding Drive Method Categorization
7.3 Relationship Between Internal Wound Roll Stress and Roll Quality
7.4 Internal Roll Young’s Modulus Anisotropy
7.5 Hakiel’s Rewinding Theory
7.6 Rewinding Equation Numerical Solution
7.7 Hakiel Model Calculation Example
7.8 Web Rewinding Theory Accounting for Air Entrainment
7.8.1 When a Nip Roller is Not Used
7.8.2 When Using a Nip Roller
7.9 Modified Hakiel Model Experimental Verification
7.9.1 Test Web Physical Properties
7.9.2 Radial Stress Inside the Roll
7.9.3 Rewinding Experiments and Internal Stress Measurement Results
7.10 Taper Tension
7.11 Optimization Theory for Rewinding Tesnion
7.12 Viscoelastic Rewinding Theory
7.13 Theory Considering Post-rewinding Temperature Changes

Chapter 8 Tension Control
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Web Transport Systems and Tension Control
8.3 Mechanical System Modeling for Tension Control
8.4 Web Tension Control System
8.5 Rewind Tension Control

Chapter 9 Web Spreading
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Web Separating and Spreading Principle
9.3 Web Separation Theoretical Prediction Model
9.4 Experimental Verification
9.4.1 Measuring Separation of the Slit Web
9.4.2 Crease Prevention Function Verification

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WH Hashimoto
Chapter 1 Background to Web Handling
Chapter 2 Web Handling Fundamentals
Chapter 3 Web Deformation
Chapter 4 Tribology in Web Handling
Chapter 5 Web Slippage
Chapter 6 Web Wrinkles
Chapter 7 Winding Mechanics
Chapter 8 Tension Control
Chapter 9 Web Spreading

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Convertech International

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CON­VERTECH INTERNATIONAL is an Eng­lish lan­guage bi- monthly mag­a­zine spe­cial­ized in con­vert­ing tech­nolo­gies. Avail­able in both print and elec­tronic ver­sions, each issue cov­ers converting materials, the fun­da­men­tals of coat­ing, print­ing, lam­i­nat­ing, and other related tech­nolo­gies.

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